Tuesday, 22 June 2010

C.Difficile in pigs and people - investigation

.
Those of you who read me on the newsgroup “uk.business.agriculture” will know that I have long added the following to my signature :

“Release and independently audit the results of testing British pigs for MRSA and C.Diff now!”

C.Diff was added some years ago, when pretty much alone, I began to suspect that there was some connection between the rise in C.Diff deaths in British hospitals and pig production.

The details are in the newsgroup archives.

I tracked the strains and repeatedly warned that different identities were given to the same strain in different places and that the outbreaks tended to come in the same areas as intensive pig farming.

Quebec and Ontario were especially badly hit.

Anyway, once again the Dutch shine.

http://www.pigprogress.net/news/netherlands-strong-increase-in-c.-difficile-in-pigs-4330.html

Netherlands: Strong increase in C. difficile in pigs 22 Jun 2010

Research at Leiden University, the Netherlands, showed that the bacteria Clostridium difficile is increasingly present in Dutch pig farms, agricultural newspaper Agrarisch Dagblad reports.

The results were obtained after tests had been carried out at the university's animal health faculty, in collaboration with the city's academic medical centre (LUMC). The increase may well be the result of strong antibiotic use in livestock.

C. difficile causes diarrhoea in piglets and was discovered in pigs for the first time in 2007 – the ribotype 078 was found at the time.

"An increase of C. difficile, ribotype 078, was also confirmed in human patients in the Netherlands, in the same timeframe," explained Ed Kuijper, medical microbiologist, LUMC.
Humans and pigs

It is being researched whether there is a link between the increase in humans and in pig production. "There is no evidence that there is a danger for people having direct contact with pigs – or that consuming pork would pose a risk," Kuijper added. He said it is difficult to trace the origins of this strain of C. difficile through epidemiological research as the bacteria has become widespread by now.

In humans, this type of Clostridium mainly occurs with people who have been consuming a lot of antibiotics, causing a balance disruption in the gastro-intestinal tract. "We suspect that in pig production, there is also a link between the use of antibiotics and the prevention of C. difficile," Kuijper said.

Wednesday, 9 June 2010

MRSA st398 in Cattle (Calves) and people

.
Britain's corrupt and incompetent government veterinarians are going to have to be detached from their PR machine and driven out of their bunkers to start widespread testing of cattle too, under appropriate supervision.

Better get the work done with no faking and own up to the reality, before the EU and USA force it on Britain.

Maryn McKenna's "Third Epidemic" predicted in her book "Superbug" is spreading.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010990;jsessionid=DE05F383B1284971A57F84E8A653AD54.ambra02


Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Veal Calf Farming: Human MRSA Carriage Related with Animal Antimicrobial Usage and Farm Hygiene...

...Introduction
Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms.

Methods
A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390) to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151). Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.

Results
Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA.

Conclusion
This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals…