We quote a new updated page on MRSA st398 from what is effectively Norway's government veterinary service.
MRSA st398 is also called MRSA cc398, and sometimes pig MRSA or LA-MRSA depending on country and context.
Norway has been showing signs of irritation, with other European countries and their sick pigs, for quite some time.
We should remember that Norway is not a member of the EU, and they often follow their own path.
The continuing efforts in Britain to publicly claim that Britain does not have MRSA st398 in her pigs, based on Defra, the government ministry, avoiding testing, may even have sparked the updated page, yesterday.
Norway is very well informed, seems enlightened and acts whilst others cover up. You can almost see the finger being firmly pointed.
The issue is now so important, we give the page in full. It is a mechanical translation.
The untranslated version is here.
Facts: LA-MRSA (methicillin-resistant livestock Associated Staphylococcus aureus in pigs)
MRSA is Staphylococcus aureus ("Staphylococcus aureus") that are resistant to important antibiotics. A special animal adapted variant of the bacterium, LA-MRSA, have in many countries become established in production animals, especially pigs, without causing significant health problems for the animals. The bacterium can be transmitted from pigs and other livestock to humans. In people who already have compromised health can LA-MRSA can cause serious infections, so it is especially important to prevent bacteria from entering the Norwegian health institutions. There is little danger that LA-MRSA be transmitted to people through food.
Infectious and transmission routes
MRSA are variants of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to several important antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections in humans and animals. A special variant of MRSA belonging to the clonal complex CC398, also called LA-MRSA, has in recent years been detected in livestock, particularly pigs in a number of countries worldwide.
LA-MRSA is spread among pigs by direct contact. The bacterium has a great ability to remain in the environment (dust and feces) and can be spread between herds also through vehicles, people or equipment contaminated. The bacteria can be transmitted to humans who have direct and repeated contact with pigs. If the carriers of the bacteria working in health care or admitted to health facilities, will be implemented to control the appearance and prevent further spread. The probability that LA-MRSA should infection via food to humans is considered very small.
LA-MRSA can occur in both production animals (poultry, cattle and sheep) and in family animals (dog, cat and horse), but the pig is considered the most important reservoir of infection for humans.
In many countries, the LA-MRSA is very common in pigs. In 2008 in all EU countries and Switzerland and Norway conducted a "baseline" study to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in swine herds. LA-MRSA was detected in pigs in 17 of 24 countries. None of the surveyed farms in Norway were positive, but the average proportion of LA-MRSA positive farms across the EU was 26.9% and in Spain, Germany and Belgium were 35 to 50% of swine herds positive. There are strong indications that the proportion of LA-MRSA positive herds have increased substantially in several countries after 2008. LA-MRSA has been detected also in poultry, cattle and sheep in some of these countries.
Under the auspices of NORM-VET (Norwegian monitoring program for antimicrobial resistance in microbes from feed, animals and food) was LA-MRSA detected in samples from the Norwegian pigs first time in 2011. survey was anonymous, and samples were taken of pigs that had been stabled on slaughterhouse. All the positive samples were taken at the same slaughterhouse, and some of the pigs may have been infected during their stay at the slaughterhouse barn.
NORM-VET conducted in 2012 a new anonymous survey of pig sampling out in herds where LA-MRSA was detected in one of 175 examined herds.
The National Veterinary Institute in 2013 and 2014 demonstrated LA-MRSA in samples from pigs in several farms in the eastern and western Norway. There is no known connection between the positive herds in the two regions, but within each region have been possible infection contact between the positive herds through livestock trade and passenger traffic.
In 2014 under the auspices of the Food Safety Authority conducted a comprehensive survey of LA-MRSA in all swine herds with more than 10 sows. Crews sample taken in connection with the outbreak fungal clearance was, however, not sampled again. Veterinary Institute examined samples from 983 herds in this survey, and proven LA-MRSA in samples from only one herd.
Overall, these studies indicate that the incidence of LA-MRSA is still very low in Norwegian pig herds. One assumes that the infection is detected in Norwegian pigs have come into herds by humans.
LA-MRSA is not particularly pathogenic in pigs. Most infected pigs are healthy carriers, but the bacteria have been isolated from pigs with infections eg in the skin and joints.
In infected herds LA-MRSA in pigs' mucous membranes, especially the nasal mucosa and skin. The bacteria isolated frequently from dust in the pigs' environment. Upon examination of MRSA samples are taken from the nasal mucosa, or from the skin behind the ears.It may also be dust samples from the environment in which the pigs are located. Analysis takes place by culture and susceptibility testing, and by detecting the gene encoding meticillinresistens in suspected bacterial isolates.
Prevention and control
Findings of LA-MRSA in pigs reported to the FSA who take steps to combat the infection in the herd and prevent spread to new farms. FSA warns on to Public Health so that they can offer testing people who have been in contact with infected pigs. It is prepared information materials with advice on how to reduce the risk of spread of LA-MRSA between herds and between pigs and people.
LA-MRSA in humans
LA-MRSA is even more pathogenic in humans than other variants of Staphylococcus aureus, but by infection with LA-MRSA there is reduced opportunities for treatment with antibiotics. In people with compromised health may LA-MRSA can cause serious infections.To prevent bacteria from entering the Norwegian health institutions attach great importance to combat the incidence of LA-MRSA in livestock. For more information about the meaning of LA-MRSA Public Health at the NIPH .
What do Veterinærinstituttet?
Veterinary Institute is a national reference laboratory for antimicrobial resistance and examining samples from animals and fish for antibiotic resistant bacteria. In addition, plans, analyzes and reports on the Veterinary Institute of Monitoring of antibiotic resistant microbes (NORM-VET) and LA-MRSA, commissioned by the FSA.
Veterinary Institute provides advice and technical assessments and risk analysis with respect to LA-MRSA when appropriate.
Upon discovery of LA-MRSA in pigs in Norway, the Norwegian Veterinary Institute in cooperation with the FSA and industry conduct new studies aimed at mapping the distribution.
Read more at the National Veterinary Institute theme page on LA-MRSA in pigs